James Tilton Modernizes Military Medicine
James Tilton served as a surgeon and hospital director for the Continental Army.
Tilton’s respect as a doctor grew until he was appointed Physician and Surgeon General in the War of 1812.
By our modern standards, the practice of medicine in 18th century America may seem backwards. This was the Age of Enlightenment, however, and new developments were being made all the time.
It was this environment in which James Tilton graduated with a medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania.
Tilton returned home to Delaware and opened up a doctor’s office.
Then the war came.
James Tilton, already a volunteer in the militia, quickly joined the Continental Army when the American Revolutionary War began.
His superiors took advantage of his knowledge and Tilton was appointed as his regiment’s surgeon.
James served in the New York and New Jersey Campaigns. When his fellow servicemen were nearly wiped out, Tilton stayed with them in the hospital. He noticed many problems with the hospital’s set up, developing ideas for more efficient healthcare.
The following year, Tilton was sent to Virginia to administer smallpox vaccines. Vaccines were a new method of preventing disease at the time and the Continental Congress’ decision to inoculate its soldiers demonstrates the speedy improvements medicine was making.
Tilton then spent time overseeing several hospitals throughout the colonies. He began implementing some of his ideas, including putting small groups of patients into 8-person cabins which were well ventilated.
These cabins, in addition to attempts at sterilization, helped prevent the spread of disease.
After the American Revolutionary War came to an end, James Tilton was elected to the Delaware House of Representatives.
Tilton spent two years in the Continental Congress, then he returned to private practice.
Physician and Surgeon General
Tilton, already one of the most respected doctors in the country, published Economical Observations on Military Hospitals and the Prevention and Cure of Diseases Incident to an Army. This publication was dedicated to Secretary of War John Armstrong.
A month later, the War of 1812 began and the Army was reorganized.
A new position was created and given to Tilton, Physician and Surgeon General. In this office, James was responsible for overseeing all of the military hospitals in the United States.
Tilton overhauled many of these hospitals, making sanitation a priority well before it became standard practice.
As the War of 1812 drew to a close, Tilton published Regulations for the Medical Department which outlined everything he knew about running the medical wing of the United State Army. This final publication would be the heart of American military medicine for decades.
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